Chemicals At Workplace
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Acids

Acids are corrosive substances widely used throughout the industry for cleaning,
etching, plating and stripping. They are usually in liquid or powder form. Most are
acutely hazardous, especially when concentrated. Acids can penetrate clothing rapidly
causing serious burns and damage to tissues beneath the skin. Protective gear is
essential, especially for the hands, face, eyes and lungs. All corrosives should be
labeled clearly with warning placards.

Organic acids

lnorganic Acids

acetic acid

aqua regia

adipic acid

buffered oxide etch

citric acid

boric acid

formic acid

chromic acid

lactic acid

hydrobromic acid

oxalic acid

hydrochioric acid

 

hydrocyanic acid

 

hydrofluoric acid

 

hydrofluoric acid

 

nitric acid

 

phosphoric acid

 

sulfonic acid

 

sulfuric acid

 

Alkalis (Bases)

Alkaline or base substances are used primarily for cleaning and scouring. Like acids,
they are acutely hazardous, especially in concentrated form. Most have strong caustic or
corrosive action, and as such should be clearly labeled with warning
placards. Be sure to use protective gear especially for the face, eyes, hands and lungs.

ammonia

calcium hydroxide

ammonia persulfate

potassium hydroxide

ammonium fluoride

sodium hydroxide

ammonium hydroxide

 

 

Cryogenic gases

Cryogenic means ultra-cold. These gases are usually stored in liquid
form under high pressure and are used to heat and cool ovens in the process of
seminconductor wafer fabrication. Some are used as 'carrier' gases, carrying dopants into
the oven chamber. Hydrogen and oxygen are extremely flammable (they ignite and burn very
easily). These gases have a potential to explode and thus require special storage and
handling precautions. A major leak of liquefied gas can rapidly fill the workroom
displacing oxygen and causing sudden death by asphyxiation.

argon

hydrogen

carbon dioxide

nitrogen

carbon monoxide

oxygen

deuterium

ozone

helium

 

 

Cyanides

Cyanides are a group of highly irritating and rapidly acting poisons.
They are used for cleaning, plating and metallizing. Notice that most cyanide compounds
(salts) contain a metal or mineral molecule. The biggest risk is exposure to cyanide in
gas form, although they are often stored in solid or liquid form. Cyanide is quickly
absorbed through the skin and lungs. It prevents the body tissues from taking up oxygen
causing sudden death by asphyxiation. Repeated low-level exposure can cause severe
dermatitis, thyroid disease, and muscle incoordination. Another highly reactive and
poisonous group related to the cyanides are the isocyanates. Be extremely careful with any
cyanide compound, and always wear a proper respirator if the process is not completely
enclosed. Be sure cyanides are labeled clearly with warning placards.

calcium cyanide

potassium cyanide

copper cyanide

potassium ferrocyanide

hydrocyanic acid

sodium syanide

nickel cyanide

zinc cyanide

 

Dopants

Dopants are metal compounds in solid, liquid or gas form and are used to
make chips. Dopants are sometimes called impurities. They are usually injected as a gas or
vapour into ovens which are heated to extreme temperatures. When heated, the metal of the dopant is deposited in the semiconductor wafer, penetrating its surface and giving it the
ability to conduct electricity. The metals more commonly used in doping include aluminum,
antimony and arsenic. Boron and phosphorous are also commonly used. Dopants are considered
to be potentially the most hazardous group of chemicals used in electronics. Most are
highly toxic. If a leak or rupture occurs with a substance like phosphine, arsine, or the
boranes, the whole factory and surrounding community can be affected with many cases of
serious harm and sudden death. Argon and deuterium are sometimes used as carrier gases.

Gases

Solids

arsenic pentafluoride

aluminum

arsine

antimony

boron trichloride

antimony trioxide

boron trifluoride

arsenic

diborane

arsenic trioxide

diethyl telluride

beryllium

dimethyl telluride

boron

hydrogen arsenide

boron nitride

hydrogen phosphide

boron trioxide

pentaborane

cadmium

phosphine

chromium

phosphorus petafluoride

gallium

selenium hexafluoride

germanium

trichlorosilane

phosphorus

 

phosphorus pentoxide

Liquids

selenium

antimony trichloride

tellurium

antimony trioxide

tin

arsenic trichloride

zinc arsenide

arsenic trioxide

 

boron tribromide

 

boron trichloride

 

boron trioxide*

 

phosphorus oxychloride

 

phosphorus pentoxide*

 

phosphorus tribromide

 

phosphorus trichloride

 

silicon tetrabromide

 

*with a solvent

 

 

Fillers

Fillers are powders or tiny fibres added to resins (plastics, epoxies,
glues, paints) to give bulk, strength and form. They are durable and some resist heat,
fire and electricity. Asbestos and chromates cause cancer, and fibreglass can cause
serious lung problems if breathed in over a period of time. These substances can also be
highly irritating to the skin and eyes. Fillers are used to make printed circuit boards
and plastics. They are easily released as harmful dusts when resin products are shaped,
sawn, or drilled. Avoid breathing and direct contact.

antimony trioxide

quartz

asbestos

silica

chromate pigments

titanium

fiberglass

 

 

Metals (and their compounds)

Ordinarily, people do not consider that metals are chemicals. But they
are, and many can be very harmful if swallowed or if breathed in small unnoticeable
amounts day after day. Because metals are good conductors of electricity, they are widely
used in electronics. Metals are used or occur in many forms - such as bulk solids, powders
and liquid solutions suspended in gas form, and emitted as a fume when heated and as dust
when drilled, sawn, or fiied. Exposure to the more dangerous forms of metal (gases, dusts
and fumes) occurs more frequently during doping, soldering, plating, tinning and other
metal work.

aluminum

lithium

antimony

manganese

arsenic

mercury

barium

molybdenum

beryllium

nickel

boron

phosphorus

calcium

platinum

chromium

rhodium

chromates

selenium

cobalt

silver

copper

tantalum

iron

tellurium

gallium

tin

germanium

titanium

gold

tungsten

indium

vanadium

lead

zinc

 

Oxidizers

Oxidizers are highly reactive chemicals which can be used to clean or to
render a metal surface free from corrosion. During oxidation, oxygen (from the oxidizer or
from the air) combines with a metal or semiconductor surface to form a protective oxide
layer. Some oxidizers have strong corrosive action and care must be taken to protect the
eyes, skin and lungs from exposure. Oxidizers are also highly flammable and require
special handling and storage arrangements.

ammonium persulfate

nitrous oxide

cerric ammonium sulfate

oxygen

chlorine

ozone

chromic acid

potassium iodide

hydrogen peroxide

silver nitrate

iodine

sodium persulfate

 

Resins (epoxies, curing agents, plastics)

There are many kinds of resins: plastics, epoxies, glues, adhesives,
paints, waxes, synthetic rubber, synthetic fibres, and many others. With obvious exception
of rosin (colophony) flux used in soldering, most resins used in electronics are man-made
organic polymers. Polymers are complex chemical substances. Most contain many poisonous
ingredients, such as solvents, dyes, stabilizers, fillers, plasticizers, catalysts and
monomer residue. Some of these ingredients cause allergies, birth defects and cancer.
Polymers are formed from monomers. Epoxides (epoxy resins) are normally cured with a
phenol compound, and polyesters are cured with a peroxide compound. Uncured epoxy resins
or monomers are very toxic and penetrate the skin and lungs rapidly. After they are
reacted, cured, or set they are much less harmful, though dust created by shaping, cutting
and drilling can be harmful. Resins are widely used in electronics, particularly in making
printed circuit boards, moulding plastics, bonding, encapsulating and packaging, and are
also used as wire coatings and a variety of other electrical insulation materials. Resins
can produce a wide variety of highly toxic vapours and gases when heated or burning. Fires
caused by burning plastic are sometimes very difficult to control.

Epoxy resins (epoxies)

Polymers

diepoxybutane

polyesters

diglycidyl ethers

polyethylene

epichlorohydrin

polystyrene

triethylene glycol diglycidyl ether

polytetrafluoroethylene

 

polyurethane

 

polyvinylchloride

 

silicones

Curing agents (for epoxies)

Resin ingredients/additives

adipic acid

chlorinated diphenyls

amines

formaldehyde

anhydrides

ethyl acrylate

3,3'-dichlorobenzidine

ethylene imine

diethyl amine

fillers (see above)

diethylene triamine

isobutene

dimethyl amine

isocyanates

ethylene diamine

isocyanates

ethylene triamine

ketones

maleic anhydride

methyl methacrylate

methylene dianiline

phenol

MOCA

styrene

organic acids (see Acids above)

toluene diisocyanate

phthalic anhydride

xylene

piperazine

 

Monomers

 

acrylonitrile

 

butene oxides

 

ethylene oxide

 

styrene oxide

 

vinyl chloride

 

vinyl cyclohexane dioxide

 

 

Semiconductors

Semiconductors are the basic raw material or substrate for making
electronic devices. They are treated with dopants and other chemicals to give them special
electrical capabilities. Semiconductor substances are sometimes made by chemical companies
which specialize in supplying chemicals to the electronics industry.

cadmium sulfide

gallium arsenide

germanium

indium phosphide

silicon


Solvents

Solvents are used in nearly every phase of electronics manufacturing. They are used
primarily for cleaning and degreasing, and for thinning plastics, resins, glues, inks,
paints and waxes. There is a wide range of organic solvents, some very toxic and others
only mildly toxic. The subgroups should be considered to have a better idea of specific
hazard risks and uses.The aromatic compounds and the chlorinated hydrocarbons are perhaps
the most dangerous groups of solvents since many of them are known to cause cancer and
other serious diseases.

acetone

glycidyl ethers

amyl acetate, sec-

heptane

benzyi chloride

hexamethyl disilazane

bis(chioromethyl)ether

hexane

butyl acetate, n-

hexanone,3-

butyi acetate, tert-

isopropyl alcohol

butyl cellosoive

kerosene

butyl glycidyl ether, n-

methyl isobutyl ketone

carbon disulfide

methyl cellosolve

carbon tetrachloride

methyl ethyl ketone

carbon tetrafluoride

methyl isobutyl ketone

cellosoive

ethyl-2-pyrrolidone

cellosoive acetate

methylene chloride

chiorobenzene

naphtha

chloroform

nitrobenzene

chlorotoluene

nonane

cresoi glycidyl ether

pentane

dichlorobenzene

perchloroethylene

dichioromethyl ether, a,a-

petroleum spirits

diglycidyi ether

phenol

dimethyi formamide

phenol cyclohexane

dioxane, 1,4-

phenol glycidyl ether

ethyl acetate

propyl alcohol

ethyl alcohol

stoddard solvent

ethyl benzene

styrene

ethyl chioride

toluene

ethyl ether

trichlorobenzene

ethyl formate

trichloroethane, 1,1,1-

ethylene dichioride

trichloroethylene

ethylene glycol

trimethyl benzene

ethylidene chloride

turpentine

freons

xylene